Renal Disorders


  1. Cystitis is inflammation of the bladder, usually caused by a bladder infection.

Bladder infections can be caused by:

  • not emptying your bladder properly – for example, because of pregnancy or an enlarged prostate
  • damage or irritation around the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body)
  • bacteria being transferred from the anus to the urethra – for example, during sex
  1. NEPHRITIS: Inflammation of the kidney, which causes impaired kidney function. Nephritis can be due to a variety of causes, including kidney disease, autoimmune disease, and infection. Treatment depends on the cause.


  1. KIDNEY STONES (renal lithiasis, nephrolithiasis) are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside your kidneys. The stones are made of mineral and acid salts.Kidney stones have many causes and can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.


  1. PROSTATE ENLARGEMENT, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, is a common condition that affects older men. The prostate is a small gland found only in men, located between the penis and bladder. If the prostate becomes enlarged, it can place pressure on the bladder and urethra, the tube through which urine passes. This can affect how you pass urine, because it may cause:
  • Difficulty starting urination
  • A frequent need to urinate
  • Difficulty fully emptying the bladder

5. CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function. Your kidneys filter wastes and excess fluids from your blood, which are then excreted in your urine. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in your body.

In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, you may have few signs or symptoms. Chronic kidney disease may not become apparent until your kidney function is significantly impaired.

Treatment for chronic kidney disease focuses on slowing the progression of the kidney damage, usually by controlling the underlying cause. Chronic kidney disease can progress to end-stage kidney failure, which is fatal without artificial filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant.